🖐 Cable Key - How IDE Controllers Work | HowStuffWorks

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The connector on an IDE cable. IDE devices use a ribbon cable to connect to each other. Ribbon cables have all of the wires laid flat next to each other instead​.


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Find ide connector stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. Thousands of new​.


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Below is a picture of the IDE connector on a hard drive, IDE cable, and the IDE channels on the motherboard. Jumpers on back of IDE hard disk drive. IDE cable.


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The most common types of IDE connectors are pin and pin. The former is mostly used for hard drives and built-in CD players, while the latter connects floppy.


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The standard IDE (ATA/ATAPI) uses two different connectors. The IDE/ATA cable attaches to the data connector, and the standardized power.


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IDE consists of a pin connector attached to a ribbon cable. pin connectors were also introduced later.


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IDE Connectors in PCChips MLR Pentium nordpleyada.ru nordpleyada.ru Two ATA motherboard sockets on the left, with an ATA connector on the right. Type, Internal.


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IDE consists of a pin connector attached to a ribbon cable. pin connectors were also introduced later.


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The most common types of IDE connectors are pin and pin. The former is mostly used for hard drives and built-in CD players, while the latter connects floppy.


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This relieved the mainboard and interface cards in the host computer of the chores of stepping the disk head arm, moving the head arm in and out, and so on, as had to be done with earlier ST and ESDI hard drives. All of the additional wires in the new cable are ground wires, interleaved with the previously defined wires to reduce the effects of capacitive coupling between neighboring signal wires, reducing crosstalk. It included most of the features of the manufacturer-specific variants. These included most of the features of the forthcoming ATA-2 specification and several additional enhancements. From ATA-2 on, an "identify drive" command was implemented that can be sent and which will return all drive parameters. Instead, pin 34 of the host is grounded. A drive set to "cable select" automatically configures itself as Device 0 or Device 1 , according to its position on the cable. The blue host connector has the socket for pin 34 connected to ground inside the connector but not attached to any conductor of the cable. So, if there is only one Device 0 device on the cable, there is no cable stub to cause reflections. Cable select is controlled by pin The host adapter grounds this pin; if a device sees that the pin is grounded, it becomes the Device 0 device; if it sees that pin 28 is open, the device becomes the Device 1 device. Often, these additional connectors were implemented by inexpensive RAID controllers. Motherboard vendors still wishing to offer Parallel ATA with those chipsets must include an additional interface chip. The bottom row of contacts are the odd-numbered sockets of the connector mating with the odd-numbered pins of the receptacle and attach to the remaining even-numbered conductors of the cable. The integrated controller presented the drive to the host computer as an array of byte blocks with a relatively simple command interface. Pin 28 of the black drive reaches pin 28 of the host receptacle but not pin 28 of the gray drive, while pin 34 of the black drive reaches pin 34 of the gray drive but not pin 34 of the host. The center row of contacts are all connected to the common ground bus and attached to the odd numbered conductors of the cable. Since the old 40 conductor cables do not ground pin 34, the presence of a ground connection indicates that an 80 conductor cable is installed. This distinction is necessary to allow both drives to share the cable without conflict. Also, cable select is now implemented in the device 1 device connector, usually simply by omitting the contact from the connector body. Connecting such a drive to a host with an ATA-5 or earlier interface will limit the usable capacity to the maximum of the interface. Note the connections to the common ground bus from sockets 2 top left , 19 center bottom row , 22, 24, 26, 30, and 40 on all connectors. In the ATA standard, pin 20 is defined as a mechanical key and is not used. For many years, ATA provided the most common and the least expensive interface for this application. In later versions, faster Ultra DMA modes were added, requiring new wire cables to reduce crosstalk. Each cable has two or three connectors, one of which plugs into a host adapter interfacing with the rest of the computer system. It is a common myth that the controller on the master drive assumes control over the slave drive, or that the master drive may claim priority of communication over the other device on the same ATA interface. The gray center connector omits the connection to pin 28 but connects pin 34 normally, while the black end connector connects both pins 28 and 34 normally. Pin 28 is only used to let the drives know their position on the cable; it is not used by the host when communicating with the drives. The extra pins carry power. The function of serializing requests to the interface is usually performed by a device driver in the host operating system.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH} The traditional cable uses socket connectors attached to a or conductor ribbon cable. The term Integrated Drive Electronics refers not just to the connector and interface definition, but also to the fact that the drive controller is integrated into the drive, as opposed to a separate controller on or connected to the motherboard. A useful mental model is that the host ATA interface is busy with the first request for its entire duration, and therefore can not be told about another request until the first one is complete. The standard dictates color-coded connectors for easy identification by both installer and cable maker. Parallel ATA cables transfer data 16 bits at a time. Also note enlarged detail, bottom, looking from the opposite side of the connector that socket 34 of the blue connector does not contact any conductor but unlike socket 34 of the other two connectors, it does connect to the common ground bus. Each connector has 39 physical pins arranged into two rows, with a gap or key at pin Round parallel ATA cables as opposed to ribbon cables were eventually made available for ' case modders ' for cosmetic reasons, as well as claims of improved computer cooling and were easier to handle; however, only ribbon cables are supported by the ATA specifications. The wire for pin 34 is attached normally on the other types and is not grounded. From the start, and up to ATA-2, every user had to specify explicitly how large every attached drive was. In some systems, a third and fourth motherboard interface was provided, allowing up to eight ATA devices to be attached to the motherboard. A pin variant PATA connector is used for 2. The image on the right shows PATA connectors after removal of strain relief, cover, and cable. This also eliminated the need to design a single controller that could handle many different types of drives, since the controller could be unique for the drive. The parallel ATA protocols up through ATA-3 require that once a command has been given on an ATA interface, it must complete before any subsequent command may be given. The top row of contacts are the even-numbered sockets of the connector mating with the even-numbered pins of the receptacle and attach to every other even-numbered conductor of the cable. This pin's socket on the female connector is often obstructed, requiring pin 20 to be omitted from the male cable or drive connector; it is thus impossible to plug it in the wrong way round. This arrangement eventually was standardized in later versions. Also, depending on the hardware and software available, a Single drive on a cable will often work reliably even though configured as the Device 1 drive most often seen where an optical drive is the only device on the secondary ATA interface. Another common usage is to refer to the specification version by the fastest mode supported. The host need only to ask for a particular sector, or block, to be read or written, and either accept the data from the drive or send the data to it. The pins are closer together and the connector is physically smaller than the pin connector. Traditionally, a device on the ATA interface has been a hard disk drive, but any form of storage device may be placed on the ATA interface provided it adheres to this standard. On the black connector, sockets 28 and 34 are completely normal, so that pins 28 and 34 of the drive attached to the black connector will be connected to the cable. Some hard drive manufacturers, such as Western Digital, started including these override utilities with new large hard drives to help overcome these problems. If there is just one device on the cable, this results in an unused stub of cable, which is undesirable for physical convenience and electrical reasons. With the wire cable, it was very common to implement cable select by simply cutting the pin 28 wire between the two device connectors; putting the Device 1 device at the end of the cable, and the Device 0 on the middle connector. A drive mode called cable select was described as optional in ATA-1 and has come into fairly widespread use with ATA-5 and later. Multiplied by bytes per sector, this totals bytes which, divided by 1 bytes per MiB , equals MiB MB. This totals to 8 bytes It was eventually determined that these size limitations could be overridden with a tiny program loaded at startup from a hard drive's boot sector. Though the number of wires doubled, the number of connector pins and the pinout remain the same as conductor cables, and the external appearance of the connectors is identical. It is attached normally on the gray and black connectors. The remaining connector s plug into storage devices, most commonly hard disk drives or optical drives. Pin one is at bottom left of the connectors, pin 2 is top left, etc. After later versions of the standard were developed, this became known as "ATA-1". Older operating systems, such as Windows 98 , do not support bit LBA at all. For example, any removable media device needs a "media eject" command, and a way for the host to determine whether the media is present, and these were not provided in the ATA protocol. {PARAGRAPH}{INSERTKEYS}Parallel ATA PATA , originally AT Attachment , is an interface standard for the connection of storage devices such as hard disk drives , floppy disk drives , and optical disc drives in computers. They were replaced by SATA interfaces. It has largely been replaced by SATA in newer systems. On the gray connector, note that socket 28 is completely missing, so that pin 28 of the drive attached to the gray connector will be open. Pin 34 is connected to ground inside the blue connector of an conductor cable but not attached to any conductor of the cable. Physical ATA interfaces became a standard component in all PCs, initially on host bus adapters, sometimes on a sound card but ultimately as two physical interfaces embedded in a Southbridge chip on a motherboard. All three connectors are different from one another. This is more appropriate since the two devices have always operated, since the earliest ATA specification, as equal peers on the cable, with neither having control or priority over the other. The connector is an insulation-displacement connector —in other words, each contact comprises a pair of points which together pierce the insulation of the ribbon cable with such precision that they make a connection to the desired conductor without harming the insulation on the neighboring wires. If two devices are attached to a single cable, one must be designated as Device 0 in the past, commonly designated master and the other as Device 1 in the past, incorrectly designated as slave. ATA's cables have had 40 wires for most of its history 44 conductors for the smaller form-factor version used for 2. As mentioned in the previous sections, ATA was originally designed for, and worked only with hard disk drives and devices that could emulate them. However, if the computer was booted in some other manner without loading the special utility, the invalid BIOS settings would be used and the drive could either be inaccessible or appear to the operating system to be damaged. Note that if two drives are configured as Device 0 and Device 1 manually, this configuration does not need to correspond to their position on the cable. Together with Control Data Corporation the hard drive manufacturer and Compaq Computer the initial customer , they developed the connector, the signaling protocols and so on, with the goal of remaining software compatible with the existing ST hard drive interface. If there is a single device on a cable, it should be configured as Device 0. All of these low-level details of the mechanical operation of the drive were now handled by the controller on the drive itself. The gray connector on conductor cables has pin 28 CSEL not connected, making it the slave position for drives configured cable select. ATA-2 also was the first to note that devices other than hard drives could be attached to the interface:. Some bit and bit operating systems supporting LBA48 may still not support disks larger than 2 TiB due to using bit arithmetics only; a limitation also applying to many boot sectors. It is attached normally on the black master drive end and blue motherboard end connectors. In fact, the drivers in the host operating system perform the necessary arbitration and serialization, and each drive's onboard controller operates independently of the other. The interface cards used to connect a parallel ATA drive to, for example, a PCI slot are not drive controllers: they are merely bridges between the host bus and the ATA interface. These numbers were important for the earlier ST interface, but were generally meaningless for ATA—the CHS parameters for later ATA large drives often specified impossibly high numbers of heads or sectors that did not actually define the internal physical layout of the drive at all. Although they were in common use, the terms "master" and "slave" do not appear anymore in current versions of the ATA specifications, or any current documentation. However, some certain era drives have a special setting called Single for this configuration Western Digital, in particular. Installing the cable backwards with the black connector on the system board, the blue connector on the remote device and the gray connector on the center device will ground pin 34 of the remote device and connect host pin 34 through to pin 34 of the center device. Internally, the connectors are different; the connectors for the wire cable connect a larger number of ground wires to the ground pins, while the connectors for the wire cable connect ground wires to ground pins one-for-one. The first drive interface used bit addressing mode which resulted in a maximum drive capacity of two gigabytes. The stub causes signal reflections , particularly at higher transfer rates.